Ergonomics design


Atomy Design Lab

Sanchez l Lee Usin

usin.lee@atomy.kr



In evaluating the value of a product, convenience in use as well as shaping and functionality also serves as a very important criterion. It is also important for product makers to create solid and beautiful products, but they should think about allowing product users to use them naturally and comfortably without additional training, complicated processes, or additional tools. It examines the concept of 'human engineering design' that provides convenience to humans, that is, the subject who uses the product.

<Henry Dreyfuss Human Factors>


Ergonomics is a major tool for user-centered design. Ergonomic design is a design approach that systematically applies it using human science to design designs that conform to human physical and psychological characteristics in designing environments, products, and systems. The goal of ergonomics is to improve efficiency, safety, convenience, and satisfaction when humans and design interact.





The beginning of ergonomic design

Early ergonomic design began with the concept of ergonomics that applied human body figures and physiological characteristics to the design to help users use it physically comfortably, safely and efficiently. As ergonomics has advanced, its scope has even included cognitive and behavioral characteristics of users, and current ergonomics includes human characteristics, systems of the human environment, interrelationships, and suitability.


Ergonomic design refers to the human-centered design direction based on ergonomics. Ergonomic design is a sub or equivalent concept of universal design that can be used comfortably by all users, and includes user-centered designs that provide convenience to a specific user group. Ergonomics design is called Human Factors in the United States and Ergonomics in Europe, and there are some differences in its developmental background and meaning.



Universal design that designs products, spaces, and services that all humans can use equally in situations.

< Universal Design Principles / Liz Kelly>



1. Human factors are the basis of American ergonomic design that combines psychological engineering that applies psychology to life with design. Human factors are ergonomic studies on work efficiency and labor sites with Ford's introduction of the system conveyor process, mainly in applied research such as aircraft, automobiles, and electrical devices as ergonomics who studied military technology moved to the industry after World War II. Human factors are close to the concept of universal design, with ergonomics as an element for securing human convenience and work efficiency in conjunction with various fields of psychology.


2. Ergonomics has grown around the Labor Physiology Research Institute in Germany with a combination of terms of Greek words 'ergo (labor), 'nomos (management law)' and 'ics (academic). It is a research field centered on industrial labor, rest, and working hours.



Ergonomic design that designs space, tools, and environment according to human characteristics.

<University of Kent>






Ergonomic design vs ergonomic design

Ergonomics design is recognized as ergonomic design or ergonomic design, but ergonomic design is a concept centered on human physical aspects and is close to user-centered design. However, it standardizes the average of all different human figures. Therefore, human body figures should be classified and set according to the characteristics of each user group, such as race and genetic similar groups. As a result, ergonomic design is close to 'user-centered design', a design concept aimed at providing the comfort of a specific group of users who use the created product, service, or environment.





Ergonomic design that defines the average human figure and designs all products and environments within its framework.

<What is Ergonomics? | Dohrmann Consulting>






The 3P Rules of Ergonomic Design.

While ergonomic design focuses on the characteristics of the human body, ergonomic design is a concept that includes human psychological and physiological characteristics. According to an interview with Professor Na Gun of IDAS at Hongik University, ergonomic design has 3P rules. 3P is the basis of ergonomics as three elements: Physical, Physiological, and Psychological. In proceeding with TASK, the ultimate purpose of human behavior (including the concept of ergonomic design), design considering 3P becomes a factor that increases the security, convenience, comfort, and efficiency of TASK.



By applying the concept of user-centered design to the 3P concept of human pollution design, it is possible to create a design for effective success that focuses a little more on TASK. By checking all the physical, psychological, physiological characteristics, or environment of workers in a specific workspace, and designing spaces and tools centered on the target workers, it is a concept of designated user-centered design as workers, but better results can be obtained with the ergonomic design perspective.



Work environment or product design that considers human physical, psychological, and physiological characteristics can secure the comfort of TASK progress and induce efficiency.

<The Korean Society of Ergonomics>






Classification 3 of ergonomics of the International Ergonomics Association IEA

1. Physical Ergonomics

We study loads and reactions in human physical and physiological aspects, arrangements in handling objects with hands, plan and repeat of order, and various musculoskeletal effects in posture in static or dynamic situations.


<Pinterest Ergonomics Search>

2. Cognitive Ergonomics

Focusing on the characteristics of human psychological and mental activities and procedures such as perception, boundaries, cognition, memory, and regeneration, the interaction effects between humans and systems are studied. It includes mental workload, insomnia, decision-making, skills, psychophysics, human factor errors, and computer interactions with humans.


3. Organizational Ergonomics

As a classification that examines ergonomics macroscopic problems, we study the optimization and efficiency of social and technological systems including organizational structure, policies, and processes. Examples include work planning, job satisfaction, motivation theory, teamwork, and home work.





Fitting the Man to the Task -> Fitting the Task to the Man

In modern design, ergonomics from an ergonomic perspective is a basic element. Even a small product applies a shape and UI that considers usability as well as formative beauty, and focuses mainly on design development that minimizes the load that may occur in the human body and secures efficiency and comfort in Task.


Fitting the Man to the Task is a past idea of fitting people to work. The main purpose was to make people optimized for their target tasks through repeated education and training. The recent situation is changing compared to the past when we were able to produce maximum production with abundant manpower. Fitting the Task to the Man represents an ergonomic perspective well. It is the direction of ergonomic design in terms of ergonomic design to implement tools and environments so that they are optimal in progressing actions for purpose.


There are many products that have been reviewed from a design perspective on the morphological framework of the tool or environment that we generally think of. In particular, products closest to modern people who spend a lot of time working in desk environments, chairs, and mice are making many attempts from an ergonomic point of view.




New products are being created from a human engineering point of view, not tailored to the working environment but to the environment and tools.

<Nuni chair, Lease chair>






The direction of development of ergonomy.

The British Society of Ergonomics distinguishes the history of ergonomics as follows.

Throughout the World War, ergonomics was studied for the purpose of making the most of humans along with human psychological characteristics. Since then, ergonomics for military purposes has been transformed into ergonomics for industrial purposes with the aim of expanding the efficiency of tasks along with the industrial era. In the future, the direction of ergonomics is expected to focus on establishing mutual value in the coexistence of humans and machines.





Emotional Engineering

Emotional engineering is included in the category of ergonomics. Emotional engineering is a field that considers non-verbal factors as a technology that aims for a more convenient and pleasant life by applying quantitative measurement and evaluation analysis of human emotions to product development or environmental design. Recently, the emergence of products that combine IT technology and emotional engineering to understand the user's condition and provide functions and services suitable for the situation has emerged. As competition in the market intensifies, there is a limit to improving competitiveness only with the function, quality, and price of the product. In this situation, the industry is shifting from large-scale production of small-scale small-scale production of multiple varieties. Target users are also gradually subdivided and transformed from unspecified consumer considerations to limited-minded special groups, and these changes in the consumer market have become a factor that increases preference for designs that stimulate the emotions of special groups. Today, many designers are creating differentiation in product and environmental design by considering human sensibility.

<IKON IMAGES>



Emotional design that comes from ergonomics

Emotional design that considers sensitivity beyond ease of use comes from emotional engineering. Emotional engineering originates from Emotional Engineering by Professor Mitsuo Nagamachi at Hiroshima University in Japan in 1970. Professor Nagamachi classifies from first to third according to the purpose and necessary technology of emotional engineering.


First class: Express human emotions with adjectives, measure emotional images, and connect them to product design.

Second class: approach that emphasizes individual characteristics such as individual age and gender, and cultural focus on emotional individuality.

Reflecting some of the emotions.

Third class: Measuring human senses with an engineering approach and constructing a mathematical model.

It emphasizes the physiological characteristics of emotions.


Professor Nagamachi's emotional engineering defines it as a technology that interprets images or feelings required by humans as physical design elements and reflects them in the design of products. Through statistical and physiological psychological investigations, a system is established that can identify and data consumers' emotions and include them in the concept or identify design elements suitable for consumers' emotions. At the methodological level, the academic goal of emotional engineering is to develop the underlying technology to perform this process more effectively.


Emotional engineering is divided into detailed categories such as sensory, functional, and cultural. The sensory part is related to the three elements of good design: usability (human engineering), aesthetics, and economic aesthetics. It is necessary to create a visual liking of consumers with color and formative charm. Functional sensitivity stems from the performance and convenience of use of the product. In the process of achieving the purpose of using the product, all actions performed by the user and the sensibility felt by the user during the time to perform them should be stable and free of inconvenience, and satisfactory results should be produced. Cultural sensibility focuses on the society and culture to which the subject of use belongs.

The first car maker to introduce emotional engineering was Matsuda. Kenichi Yamamoto, then head of the Technology Research Institute, set up an emotional laboratory in the Yokohama Institute of Technology, where the world-class best-selling car MX-5 was born. The MX-5 combines a typical output of 120 horsepower of 14 torques with a lightweight body to complete a cheerful driving sensibility.

<Source: http://www.iautocar.co.kr>





Case of application of emotional engineering

As the information society intensifies, the sharing of user experiences through SNS is becoming more frequent. Modern users get data from numerous other users' experiences. The need to diversify according to the emotional value of each user is revealed to the surface, and companies are immersed in developing emotional design to differentiate themselves.


Emotional engineering technologies that focus on are 'sensory measurement technology' and 'human five senses sensor and emotional processing technology'. Samsung's "Galaxy SIII" gained huge popularity by introducing emotional functions that were not found in other domestic devices at the time. Emotional cognitive functions, such as controlling all functions of the device at once in the user's language and recognizing the user's eyes so that the screen does not turn off even after lighting time, are examples of good use of human five-sensors and emotional processing technologies.


Kia Motors has launched "K7," which implements "emotional technology for drivers." The "K7" satisfies both driver safety and sensitivity by adding a high-tech safety vehicle (ASV) function that detects driver risks in advance and creates optimal driving conditions, and an "emotional lighting" function that allows people and cars to interact with light.


LG Electronics' "Signature Refrigerator" is also a product that is applied with "Human Five Sensors Sensor Technology," which automatically opens the door when you knock and see the contents of the refrigerator. It is designed to satisfy the five senses of users and to feel emotional bonds, including emotional elements that interact with humans in products made of metal and plastic.


<Samsung Galaxy Bixby> <LG Signature Refrigerator> <Kia K7>





Affordance Design

Affordance, that is, behavioral induction, refers to the characteristics of an object that can cause a specific action. For example, if a solid object about 40 to 60 cm knee-high is placed flat and stable, it can induce humans to naturally sit there. As such, all objects have behavioral induction, that is, affordance. The design should be designed to allow users to use the product appropriately through previous visual stimuli or behavioral experiences without any additional experience through this natural affordance provision. Instead of requiring passive behavioral coordination of the user, the product or service should be able to provide an affordance element that can induce the user's behavior after anticipating and setting it in advance. This is called affordance design or supportive design.

<Noto Fukazawa's action-inducing design>


<How to Design Affordance by Donald Norman, the author of Design and Human Psychology>




Multi-Sensory Design

The design includes not only sight, but also multidimensional senses such as hearing, touch, smell, and taste. In terms of marketing, product service design that stimulates consumers' five senses is also important. Five senses design is the most important element of emotional design. All stimuli that can be felt while facing the product are the criteria for evaluating the product. The five senses are organically related to each other. You can taste it with your sight and smell, and you can judge the robustness of the product by touch and hearing. High added value can be given to products through the use of various senses. After passing through the era of personal communication device 'Cellular Phone' feature phones, modern times have entered the era of smartphones that can perform all movements with the touch of the fingertips. The sensitivity of touch has become a major factor in determining the emotional quality of a product. In addition, the finish applied to the appearance of the product determines the overall emotional quality of the product. Therefore, many makers are focusing on product design that stimulates consumers' five senses through various and original processes. In an era where the shape of a product is standardized upward, CMF's innovation for satisfying the five senses stems from the five senses design. Not only tactile but also auditory is an area of five senses design that is mainly used in product design. Many companies are immersed in the development of signature sound of products, and even automobile manufacturers are completing auditory satisfaction by involving orchestra experts in the development of exhaust sound and engine sound.





Interactive Design

In human-centered design, the interface is the contact point between products and users. Interaction between the user and the product occurs at the interface, which is a device in which the user controls the product. The communication environment between users and product services has changed from conventional one-sided communication to interactive communication. Therefore, designers should think about interaction, that is, interaction, in product development. The user's physical needs for design must be understood and satisfied with design elements. The interaction design that changes according to the user's behavior and manipulation has the characteristic of reflecting time. Interface is a design field that is designed in consideration of human cognitive behavior patterns and requires endless repetition of the response of the design according to the operation and the user's response accordingly. Interface design began with the purpose of human-computer interaction (HCI) between computers and people and gradually expanded to develop a study on the natural interaction between all systems and humans. Through advanced interaction designs, inanimate products are changing to targets that have ties with users.





From physical to emotional

Human-centered design encompasses both physical and emotional characteristics from ergonomics to emotional engineering. From the visual charm that is repeatedly emphasized to the sensory characteristics of the interface that can be felt while using the product, and the comfort of the use, all of them are design challenges. Even if it is a simple tool, a product that considers the touch of the handle and the stability of the grip that the user touches over the use of the tool can have a great influence on the sensibility of use.

All Atomy's products also have these ergonomic aspects. Atomy Large Air Purifier has a moving wheel applied to make it easier to move and place relatively large products. It is a product that considers ergonomics that allows anyone to easily move this large product with a moving wheel designed to slide naturally. In addition, a decorated cover that can be hidden so that such a device does not harm the formability of the exterior is applied. Lighting applied to large and medium air purifiers not only creates color therapy in a subtle mood, but also serves as an indicator that allows users to intuitively know the condition of air. The Sleek-shaped Indicating light applied to a heated humidifier expresses the operating state of the product with subtle lighting and is designed to interact with the operating state of the product by applying a flashing speed that allows the user to feel comfortable in a stable operating state.

Ergonomic design is an essential element of modern design. Atomy has various user communication channels such as VOC and Celllab. Basically, from the design planning stage, ergonomic designs that take into account user needs, physical characteristics, psychological characteristics, and cultural characteristics are created, and product improvements are derived and applied through mutual communication with users. By continuously applying this series of processes, Atomy Design will be the most convenient and emotional product with faithfully considered consumer needs in the global market.





 

<Refer>

YouTube's "Professor Lee Won Seob" Ergonomics that puts people first

YouTube's "Professor Lee Won Seob" What is a good design? Design ergonomics 101 summary

YouTube's 'Design Sound' Understanding of Human-centered Comprehensive Academic and Certified Engineering (Professor Nagun)

Hongik University Newspaper March 7, 2017 <The most human-like technology and emotional engineering for humans>

iAutocar 2016.03.30 Emotional engineering that connects people and cars

Moon Han, Lee Byung Jong (2007). A review of the nature of ergonomic design. Korean Design Association International Conference Paper Collection, 16-17

Lee Jungmin (2013). A Study on the Relationship Analysis between Types of Human-Centered Design and User Needs Stage

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